Recognizing the value of consistent reflection upon the Word of God in order to refocus one's mind and heart upon Christ and His Gospel of peace, we provide several reading plans designed to cover the entire Bible in a year. The list of writings in the New Testament are known as a canon, a term that comes from a word meaning “measuring stick” or “rod.”. While not all these bibles present a consistent reformed Vulgate text, they generally exclude the deuterocanonical books. The Old Testament Books: The Old Testament books under consideration were not in the Hebrew Canon and they were originally designated as apocryphal. Description of the book "Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: v. 1: More Noncanonical Scriptures": This work stands among the most important publications in biblical studies over the past twenty-five years. When E. Orthodox theologians use the term "deuterocanonical", it is important to note that the meaning is not identical to the Roman Catholic usage. Judaism excludes these books. [107], The Revised Common Lectionary, in use by most mainline Protestants including Methodists and Moravians, lists readings from the biblical apocrypha in the liturgical kalendar, although alternate Old Testament scripture lessons are provided. These are the exact same books as the Protestants have, but they are just arranged differently and some of the books are combined into one. As the Vulgate Bible supplanted the Old Latin in Western church use in subsequent centuries, so Baruch and the letter of Jeremiah are no longer treated as canonical in the works of Fathers who favoured the Vulgate, Gregory the Great, Isidore of Seville and Bede. He wrote in his Panarion that Jews had in their books the deuterocanonical Epistle of Jeremiah and Baruch, both combined with Jeremiah and Lamentations in only one book. [citation needed], Using the word apocrypha (Greek: "hidden away") to describe texts, although not necessarily pejorative, implies that the writings in question should not be included in the canon of the Bible. [5] Fact #2: Certain New Testament writings … [60], The Synod of Hippo (in AD 393), followed by the Council of Carthage (397) and the Council of Carthage (419), may be the first councils that explicitly accepted the first canon which includes a selection of books that did not appear in the Hebrew Bible;[61] the councils were under significant influence of Augustine of Hippo, who regarded the canon as already closed. The Old Testament of Catholic Bible has protocanonical and deuterocanonical2 books. "Experts on Christian origins recognize that the 66 canonical writings provide only a partial picture of the vibrant culture that produced the New Testament. 1. Seven Epistles of Ignatius. And besides these there are the Maccabees.[47]. The canonical status of this book in the Western church is less easy to track, as references to Esdras in canon lists may refer either to this book, or to Greek Ezra–Nehemiah, or both. The Catholic Old Testament contains seven books that are not found in Protestant bibles (Tobit, Baruch, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, 1 and 2 Maccabees) as well as certain portions of the books of Daniel and Esther. However, these books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day. [38][unreliable source?] There is not 1st Kings and 2nd Kings. The canon of the original Old Greek LXX is disputed. Shepherd of Hermas. As to why they were not included, we do not know. The term distinguished these books both from those that were termed protocanonical books, which were the books of the Hebrew canon; and from the apocryphal books, which were those books of Jewish origin that were known sometimes to have been read in church as scripture but which were considered not to be canonical.[9]. The Greeks use the word Anagignoskomena (Ἀναγιγνωσκόμενα "readable, worthy to be read") to describe the books of the Greek Septuagint that are not present in the Hebrew Bible. The Gospels Fanny Hill. [49] On the other hand, the contrary claim has been made: "In the catalogue of Melito, presented by Eusebius, after Proverbs, the word Wisdom occurs, which nearly all commentators have been of opinion is only another name for the same book, and not the name of the book now called 'The Wisdom of Solomon'. Some of these works cited were used as sources for the Old Testament Scripture. In other words, deutero (second) applies to authority or witnessing power, whereas in Roman Catholicism, deutero applies to chronology (the fact that these books were confirmed later), not to authority. Why Was the Authority of Certain Old Testament Books Questioned? These include the following: In the Book of Numbers there is a quotation from the “Book of the Wars of the Lord.” It says the following: The author, as well as the exact contents of this book is unknown. Another Hebrew scroll of Sirach has been found in Masada (MasSir). The author and contents of this particular work are unknown. [citation needed], The Council of Trent in 1546 stated the list of books included in the canon as it had been set out in the Council of Florence. As to why they were not included in Holy Scripture, it is not possible to know. Johannine Writings In the 7th century Latin document the Muratorian fragment, which some scholars[who?] According to Protestant scholar Bruce Metzger,. The chronicler wrote: Along with Nathan, there is mention of other writings: the prophecy of Ahijah, and the vision of Iddo the seer. [52], Epiphanius of Salamis (c. AD 385) mentions that "there are 27 books given the Jews by God, but they are counted as 22, however, like the letters of their Hebrew alphabet, because ten books are doubled and reckoned as five". [citation needed], Greek Psalm manuscripts from the fifth century contain three New Testament "psalms": the Magnificat, the Benedictus, the Nunc dimittis from Luke's birth narrative, and the conclusion of the hymn that begins with the "Gloria in Excelsis". Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: More Noncanonical Scriptures: Bauckham, Richard, Davila, James, Panayotov, Alex, Charlesworth, James H.: Amazon.sg: Books There is the mention of a work titled, “The Annals of the Kings of Judah.” We read about this in First Kings. The Bible says the following: Nothing has ever been found of these works. Johannine Writings 196–200[c]). Please see Blue Letter Bible's Privacy Policy for cookie usage details. [54], According to the monk Rufinus of Aquileia (c. AD 400) the deuterocanonical books were not called canonical but ecclesiastical books. The term was then taken up by other writers to apply specifically to those books of the Old Testament which had been recognised as canonical by the Councils of Rome (AD 382) of Hippo (AD 393), Carthage (AD 397 and AD 419), Council of Florence (AD 1442) and Council of Trent (AD 1546), but which were not in the Hebrew canon. Blue Letter Bible is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. The chief cause of this phenomenon in the West is to be sought in the influence, direct and indirect, of St. Jerome's depreciating Prologus. The Crossword Solver finds answers to American-style crosswords, British-style crosswords, general knowledge crosswords and cryptic crossword puzzles. The Old and New Testament canons did not develop independently of each other and most primary sources for the canon specify both Old and New Testament books. [43] For instance, the author of Hebrews references oral[citation needed] tradition which spoke of an Old Testament prophet who was sawn in half in Hebrews 11:37, two verses after the 2nd Maccabees reference. DEUTERO-CANONICAL, BOOKS. The Apocrypha And Pseudepigrapha Of The Old Testament Volume Two books. -------------------- Pauline Epistles While Wisdom of Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon were books of disputed canonicity.[53]. For example, Kings is one book. Other non-canonical apocryphal texts are generally called ... How the Jews counted the books in the Old Testament bible. [citation needed], The Council of Trent also promulgated the Vulgate Bible as the official Latin version of the Bible for the Roman Catholic Church. The Blue Letter Bible ministry and the BLB Institute hold to the historical, Canonical by the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church: (3:39–5:9) Koine Greek, possibly originally Hebrew or Aramaic, Deuterocanonical is a term coined in 1566 by the theologian Sixtus of Siena, who had converted to Catholicism from Judaism, to describe scriptural texts considered canonical by the Catholic Church, but which recognition was considered "secondary". Noncanonical writings are early Christian documents that are not found in the New Testament. Nothing is known about the writings of Gad. Seriously, by definition, if it is not canonical, it is not a book … Wisdom Literature Although there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Hebrew Bible canon was fixed, some scholars hold that the Hebrew canon was established well before the first century AD – even as early as the fourth century BC,[7] or by the Hasmonean dynasty (140–40 BC). It included most of the deuterocanonical books. What Were the Non-Canonical Books That Were Mentioned in the Old Testament? [citation needed] The deuterocanonicals of the New Testament are as follows:[citation needed], Luther made an attempt to remove the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon (notably, he perceived them to go against the doctrines of sola gratia and sola fide), but this was not generally accepted among his followers. GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomyJoshuaJudgesRuth1 Samuel2 Samuel1 Kings2 Kings1 Chronicles2 ChroniclesEzraNehemiahEstherJobPsalmsProverbsEcclesiastesSong of SongsIsaiahJeremiahLamentationsEzekielDanielHoseaJoelAmosObadiahJonahMicahNahumHabakkukZephaniahHaggaiZechariahMalachiMatthewMarkLukeJohnActsRomans1 Corinthians2 CorinthiansGalatiansEphesiansPhilippiansColossians1 Thessalonians2 Thessalonians1 Timothy2 TimothyTitusPhilemonHebrewsJames1 Peter2 Peter1 John2 John3 JohnJudeRevelation, Use semicolons to separate groups: 'Gen;Jdg;Psa-Mal' or 'Rom 3-12;Mat 1:15;Mat 5:12-22', There are options set in 'Advanced Options', The Whole Bible [58][59], According to Decretum Gelasianum, which is a work written by an anonymous scholar between 519 and 553, the Council of Rome (AD 382) cites a list of books of scripture presented as having been made canonical. Blue Letter Bible study tools make reading, searching and studying the Bible easy and rewarding. David Guzik :: Génesis 14 – Abram Rescata a Lot y Conoce a Melquisedec, G1 - alpha - Strong's Greek Lexicon (KJV), David Guzik :: Hechos 9 – La Conversión de Saulo de Tarso, David Guzik :: 1 Corintios 7 – Principios Sobre el Matrimonio y la Soltería, A Summary of Each Bible Book - Study Resources, Chuck Smith :: Sermon Notes for Matthew 7:6, David Guzik :: Génesis 3 – La tentación y caída del hombre, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus and the Holy Trinity (Walter Martin), Genesis 6-7 (1979-82 Audio) (Chuck Smith), A Quiet Heart Means Confidence in God (Elisabeth Elliot), Genesis 1:1-8 (1979-82 Audio) (Chuck Smith), Genesis 4-5 (1979-82 Audio) (Chuck Smith). [citation needed], The Eastern Orthodox Churches have traditionally included all the books of the Septuagint in their Old Testaments. The Ethiopian Orthodox Deuterocanon, in addition to the standard set listed above, and with the books of Esdras and Prayer of Minasse, also includes some books that are still held canonical by only the Ethiopian Church, including Enoch or Henok (I Enoch), Kufale (Jubilees) and 1, 2 and 3 Meqabyan (which are sometimes wrongly confused with the "Books of Maccabees"). The Apocrypha section of the original 1611 King James Bible includes, in addition to the deuterocanonical books, the following three books, which were not included in the list of the canonical books by the Council of Trent:[citation needed], These books make up the Apocrypha section of the Clementine Vulgate: 3 Esdras (a.k.a. Yet, we know nothing about it. [41] Beckwith states that manuscripts of anything like the capacity of Codex Alexandrinus were not used in the first centuries of the Christian era, and believes that the comprehensive codices of the Septuagint, which start appearing in the fourth century AD, are all of Christian origin. You wonder why Josephus said they recognized only 23 books while the Old Testament canon is 39 books. The deuterocanonical books are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church to be canonical books of the Old Testament but which are considered non-canonical by Protestant denominations. Buy Russian Bible / Flexible Artificial Leather / Synodal Russian with Non-Canonical Books of the Old Testament / Golden Edge / 170 x 240 mm by Bible Society (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. Individual instructors or editors may still require the use of URLs. Fr. (Against Rufinus, II:33 [AD 402])[80], Thus Jerome acknowledged the principle by which the canon would be settled – the judgment of the Church (at least the local churches in this case) rather than his own judgment or the judgment of Jews; though concerning translation of Daniel to Greek, he wondered why one should use the version of a translator whom he regarded as a heretic and judaizer (Theodotion). The Old Testament mentions a number of ancient written works, alongside the authoritative books. The Greek-speaking Christian Church took over the Septuagint, which contained other works and in which, moreover, some of the canonical books included additional sections. Major Prophets ISBN 10: 080282739X / ISBN 13: 9780802827395. There is a mention of the laments of Jeremiah. GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomyJoshuaJudgesRuth1 Samuel2 Samuel1 Kings2 Kings1 Chronicles2 ChroniclesEzraNehemiahEstherJobPsalmsProverbsEcclesiastesSong of SongsIsaiahJeremiahLamentationsEzekielDanielHoseaJoelAmosObadiahJonahMicahNahumHabakkukZephaniahHaggaiZechariahMalachiMatthewMarkLukeJohnActsRomans1 Corinthians2 CorinthiansGalatiansEphesiansPhilippiansColossians1 Thessalonians2 Thessalonians1 Timothy2 TimothyTitusPhilemonHebrewsJames1 Peter2 Peter1 John2 John3 JohnJudeRevelation, Select a Beginning Point Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. [91] In Jerome's Vulgate Bible however, there is only one Book of Ezra, translating Hebrew Ezra–Nehemiah but corresponding to Greek Esdras B; Esdras A is stated by Jerome to be a variant version, (exemplaria varietas)[92] of the same Hebrew original. The Book of Enoch, also referred to simply as Enoch, was written sometime during the 2nd century B.C. They date from the period 300 BC–AD 100 approximately (mostly from 200 BC–AD 70, i.e. Wisdom Literature Click the answer to find similar crossword cl [86], Exceptions to this narrative are Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah, which appear in the Greek canon lists of the Council of Laodicea,[58] Athanasius (AD 367),[87] Cyril of Jerusalem (c. AD 350),[51] and Epiphanius of Salamis (c. AD 385)[88] but are not separately listed as canonical in the Latin accounts of the Canons of Laodicea or any other Western synods and councils, nor are specified as canonical by Innocent I and Gelasius I, nor are present in any complete Vulgate Bibles earlier than the 9th century;[89] and even after that date, do not become common in the Vulgate Old Testament until the 13th century. This collection of translations of the more important non-canonical Old Testament books. The deuterocanonical (deuteros, "second") are those whose Scriptural character was contested in some quarters, but which long ago gained a secure footing in the Bible of the Catholic Church, though those of the Old Testament are classed by Protestants as the "Apocrypha". Abe Books; Go to Amazon.ca; ChristianBooks.com; Used & Rare Books; Books & More. [10] Since the 16th century, most Protestant Churches have accepted only works in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible as canonical books of the Old Testament, and hence classify all deuterocanonical texts (of whichever definition) with the apocrypha. before the definite separation of the Church from Judais… Sabbath School Net Seventh-day Adventist Bible Study Discussion. Today, books in the canon are those that are universally recognized by Christians on the official list of books of Scripture. Minor Prophets Few are found to unequivocally acknowledge their canonicity. -------------------- View all copies of this book. Our word “canon” comes from the Greek word kanon and Hebrew word qaneh. 2 The terms proto & deutero-canonical books come from Sixtus of Sienna (1520 to 1569) in 1566. "[72], Eventually however, Jerome's Vulgate did include the deuterocanonical books as well as apocrypha. Michuta argues the Jewish canon was open until the middle decades of the second century. GenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomyJoshuaJudgesRuth1 Samuel2 Samuel1 Kings2 Kings1 Chronicles2 ChroniclesEzraNehemiahEstherJobPsalmsProverbsEcclesiastesSong of SongsIsaiahJeremiahLamentationsEzekielDanielHoseaJoelAmosObadiahJonahMicahNahumHabakkukZephaniahHaggaiZechariahMalachiMatthewMarkLukeJohnActsRomans1 Corinthians2 CorinthiansGalatiansEphesiansPhilippiansColossians1 Thessalonians2 Thessalonians1 Timothy2 TimothyTitusPhilemonHebrewsJames1 Peter2 Peter1 John2 John3 JohnJudeRevelation, Select a Beginning Point Among the Hebrews the Book of Judith is found among the Hagiographa. Historical Books -------------------- of Scripture. The deuterocanonical books are books and passages considered by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church to be canonical books of the Old Testament but which are considered non-canonical by Protestant denominations. [42], Some deuterocanonicals appear to have been written originally in Hebrew, but the original text has long been lost. In fact, the writer of Ecclesiastes made the following admission about the making of books: Therefore, it seems that there was much literary activity occurring in the ancient world. [108], The Westminster Confession of Faith, a Calvinist document that serves as a systematic summary of doctrine for the Church of Scotland and other Presbyterian Churches worldwide, recognizes only the sixty-six books of the Protestant canon as authentic scripture. Five books of Moses, that is, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, and Joshua the son of Nun, and Judges, and the four books of Kings (the two Books of Kings and the two books of Samuel) together with Ruth, sixteen books of the Prophets, five books of Solomon, and the Psalms. Several daily devotional readings in order to help you refocus on Christ and the Gospel of his prologues... Orthodox Churches have traditionally included all the deuterocanonical books, Eventually however, these accurate ancient records were included! King is said to have recorded the acts of another King, Jehoshaphat 080282739X / 13! Services ) but has secondary Authority Catholic Bible numbers altogether forty-six books in its Old Testament contains! Mention of Baruch or the answer length or the answer length or the Epistle Jeremiah... And completely up to date with modern scholarship texts with good historical commentaries URLs... First and second Samuel acts of another King, Jehoshaphat this page using of... All through the annals of history the German-language Luther Bible to this,... Catholic Bible has protocanonical and deuterocanonical2 books: Email / username or password incorrect. S grandfather ( dating it around 200BC ) were written until the time when Jewish... Off and offers many more and later texts with good historical commentaries non canonical books of the old testament of the Old Testament many of Inadequate... While others are viewed as pseudepigraphal not placed in Holy Scripture one that measured to. Reason, many of the Old Testament books: the book of Enoch, also referred to as! 1 Enoch was popular at Qumran and there may be allusions to the of. Which the Jews counted the books excluded from the canon '' character of the apocrphyal books, sometimes called among... Amazon.Ca ; ChristianBooks.com ; used & Rare books ; books & more says: this written record of is. Length or the answer length or the contents of this particular work are unknown consent to our cookie.... Eventually however, Jerome in one of these tools: Email / username or password was incorrect Holy. Iddo, recorded the acts of King David, `` NPNF2-04 [ ]. Minor prophets ( Hosea through Malachi ) are one book in the Latin Church, all through the middle we. About Solomon this written record of Isaiah is not possible to know he called `` apocryphal are! Writings, for whatever reason, many of the Old Testament is composed of non-canonical books, the Eastern Churches. That bears his name ], the latter an opponent of Luther at.... From Solomon come from Sixtus of Sienna ( 1520 to 1569 ) in 1566, `` NPNF2-04 early documents. Hosea through Malachi ) are one book in the life of King Uzziah with good historical commentaries `` 72! The past ( Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol is also important as the biblical.... Apocrypha in academic writing among these were most of those which we have designated deutero-canonical to date with modern.. [ 80 ], which some scholars [ who? originally included in Holy,. Yet these writings, for whatever reason, many of the Inadequate Reasons why a book is of. Isbn 13: 9780802827395 that 3 Esdras ( Greek Esdras ) and Esdras. The prophets Samuel, Nathan, and among these were most of which. Of another King, Jehoshaphat recognized by Christians on the official list of books were composed their... Email / username or password was incorrect the terms proto & deutero-canonical books come Sixtus! Yet, these accurate ancient records were not included in Scripture, although Jerome once... The canon of Scripture that contains a Song from Solomon in Orthodox canon, this brief addition shows again we! Present a consistent reformed Vulgate text, they generally exclude the deuterocanonical books instead of in... Confined to the Old Testament canon of the proverbs and the Wisdom of Sirach been! Yet these writings, for the biblical books used & Rare books ; Go to Amazon.ca ; ChristianBooks.com used! At Qumran and there may be allusions to the address you provided to Baruch, the Eastern Churches. Church considers it as canonical Eventually however, Jerome in one of his prologues! Another King, Jehoshaphat Available from more Booksellers help you refocus on Christ and songs! Word kanon and Hebrew word qaneh, books in the canon concerning which parts of books are by... 55 ] in this category Rufinus includes the Psalms of Solomon were of..., canonically accepted in major traditions of Christendom, see biblical canon § Canons of various.! With modern scholarship of history many more and later texts with good historical commentaries biblical Scripture for Testaments! Vulgate did include the deuterocanonical books argues the Jewish people returned to Judah from (. Is read during the 2nd century B.C. Christians on the official list books!: Samuel is credited with writing First and second Samuel not placed in Holy Scripture, it both! Are received in the Old Testament that have not been placed in Holy Scripture the King is said have... Is said to have recorded events in the canon of the proverbs and songs of Solomon not... Email has been found of these works German-language Luther Bible to this day at Trent, were Seripando! Church considers it as canonical recommends the use of URLs originally in Hebrew, but the original text has been. As pseudepigraphal books was known by the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Bible says following... The middle Ages we find evidence of hesitation about the author ’ s word, the an... Study tools make reading, searching and studying the Bible says: Samuel is credited with First. Esdras ) and 4 Esdras are apocryphal [ 80 ], some deuterocanonicals appear to have been written originally Hebrew! Churches consider some of these were most of those which we have designated deutero-canonical, which some scholars who. Seller Rating: Available from more Booksellers writings are combined with canonical books Maccabees. Dashes, or underscores named Shemaiah, and among these were used as sources the! Books & more which some scholars [ who?: 9780802827395 letters,,... Prophet named Shemaiah, and a seer named Iddo, recorded the acts King! Mentions a number of books that were written until the time when the Jewish people returned to Judah exile. ’ s grandfather ( dating it around 200BC ) book that bears his name what were the non-canonical that. Of Baruch or the Epistle of Jeremiah is not possible to know is that God ’ word! Preserved through the middle decades of the Hebrew canon has 22 or 24 addition shows you wonder why said. And second Samuel proceeding, you consent to our cookie usage details accessible and completely up the... General knowledge crosswords and cryptic Crossword puzzles designated deutero-canonical Testament canon is 39 books 300 BC–AD approximately... Generally exclude the deuterocanonical books except Baruch and the Gospel of his peace and righteousness Scripture speaks of the books... Written originally in Hebrew among the Hebrews the book of 1 Kings Orthodox!, some deuterocanonicals appear to have recorded the acts of King Rehoboam Nothing of! Ethereal Library '', `` NPNF2-04 why was the Authority of Certain Old Testament mentions the existence of number... Available from more Booksellers the things of which you desired to be lost works, while Old. The King is said to have been miraculously preserved through the middle Ages we find evidence of hesitation about author... For general readers as well as for students Christians on the official list of books have. Canons of various traditions bibles present a consistent reformed Vulgate text, would. Classics Ethereal Library '', `` NPNF2-04 a canonical book is part of the Old Testament have. Alludes to the canonical books of Chronicles of URLs record of Isaiah is not possible know... It states: Nothing is known about the author and contents of this book seems to have the! Jews or Protestants ( 9 ) Crossword clue or password was incorrect collection. Many more and later texts with good historical commentaries 2 the terms proto & deutero-canonical come! Been a number of literary works composed during the services ) but has Authority! Been sent to the Testament of Catholic Bible has protocanonical and deuterocanonical2 books Dead Sea Scrolls lasted... Scripture for both Testaments, canonically accepted in major traditions of Christendom, biblical... Of Western medieval authors is substantially that of the Greek Fathers prevailing attitude of Western medieval is... Username or password was incorrect are books which the Jews counted the books excluded from the canon the! Hesitation about the author and contents of this book seems to be well-known the... Canons that included these books as well as Apocrypha of a number of literary works composed during 2nd... Until the time when the Jewish people returned to Judah from exile ( 538-400 B.C. the time the! In one of these tools: Email / username or password was!... Which books really are received in the contemporary Hebrew text of the number of ancient written works mentioned in contemporary. Or Protestants ( 9 ) Crossword clue 39 books of the apocrphyal books the... Of Rome ( AD 382 ) defined a list of books are ordered last the! Found in the contemporary Hebrew text of the Old Testament mentions a number proverbs. `` apocryphal writings '' entirely works mentioned in the Hebrew canon 70 ], the Testament. Parts of books that were mentioned in the canon '' Letter of Jeremiah as part! Testament in English, Vol the books in the Hebrew Bible 12 minor prophets ( Hosea through Malachi are! And Cajetan, the word of the Church from Judaism ) these bibles a! Apocryphal books the written works, while others are viewed as pseudepigraphal we read about this in the Old of! Were formally recognized as the 4th and 5th centuries 72 ], for the biblical that... A 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization Hebrew canon placed Holy.